Sunday, January 16, 2011

Next Generation for Future Leaders (Besties)

Zackiy Fathaniy - Master of Human Resource Management
Audita Arfanda - Master Of Human Resource Management
Dieka Novitasari - Master of Science (Management)

Novient Siregar - Master of Human Resource Management

Asti Dwi Purwanti - Master of Human Resource Management

Fachrurozi Lubis - Master of Science (IT)
Rachmat Hendra Susanto - Master of Accounting
Ok M. Fajar Ikhsan - Master of Science ( Strategic Studies)

Teman Hidup (UUM)

Audit a.k.a Femaw, Bebidit

Akbar a.k.a  Badak, BebiJoey

Raedy a.k.a Kang Sayur

Hardi a.k.a Babi 2

Jean a.k.a Ayi

Andro a.k.a Jenggot, Brewok

Jerry a.k.a Maho,

Enggal a.k.a Botak Jahanam

Rio Trisasmita a.k.a Makibao

Eksa Fattah a.k.a siHitam

Stevano a.k.a  Cupaww, Stepo

Kukuh a.k.a kupay, Pak Tua

Aldo a.k.a Iponk Babi

Faizal a.k.a Paijo, Arab

Saturday, January 15, 2011

The differences of management education, management training and on job experiences

a.       Management Education involves activities designed to help participant gain a broad range of conceptual knowledge and skills in formal classroom situation, most typically from degree granting institutions either Bachelor degree or Master Degree.
An education in management has two aims. Firstly, to increase the understanding of the factors which influence the conduct of organizations and secondly to provide students with some tools and techniques which they may use to influence organizational life.  Most subjects that one studies in a management program are composed of theory and practice. Management education emphasizes on the application of concepts in the industry.
In the certain business program, they are designed to focus on learning outcomes, involve and serve the needs of all stakeholders group, stimulate students to think about issues in novel ways, expand students capacity to think and act creatively.
There are six elements in the programs
a.       Managerial assessment and development course that provides students with a way to assess and develop the KSAOs relevant to their management careers.
b.      Development of an individual learning plan
c.       Executive action teams, to integrate  learning across courses and from student experiences
d.      Business disciplines
e.       Multidisciplinary perspective course organized around them
f.       Advanced electives courses
This method used competency based program that has a positive impact in helping students to improve their abilities between the time of entry and graduation.
Business programs can provide a valuable foundation for a manager’s development and a good way for practicing managers to reflect on their experiences and develop new skills and knowledge. Graduate of such programs should be seen as works in progress, with the potential to become effective managers with further development and experiences.
Advantages of using such course offered by external providers or program include controlling cost of in house courses, the specialized expertise of the program the design and packaging of such courses and practitioner oriented approach. Disadvantage to short course offered by universities is a real or perceived lack of relevance and practical orientation.
Regardless type of management education, the challenges facing all management educators today is to ensure the timeliness and value added of what is presented.
b.      Management training and on the job experiences, Most of Organization use this as a part of their efforts to develop managers.
Company Designed Course – Organizations frequently design their own courses and seminar as one way to develop their managers. These efforts can range from a specific course focusing on one skill or issues. The issues in designing and implementing such course are the same as for any HRD programs to ensure that such course fit within an overall framework for developing managers.
On-the-job training focuses on the acquisition of skills within the work environment generally under normal working conditions. Through on-the-job training, workers acquire both general skills that they can transfer from one job to another and specific skills that are unique to a particular job. On-the-job training typically includes verbal and written instruction, demonstration and observation, and hands-on practice and imitation. In addition, the on-the-job training process involves one employee—usually a supervisor or an experienced employee—passing knowledge and skills on to a novice employee.
On-the-job training is the oldest form of training. Prior to the advent of off-site training classrooms, the only practical way of learning a job was working alongside an experienced worker in a particular trade or profession—as evinced by the practice of apprenticeship during the Middle Ages when master craftsmen passed on skills and knowledge to novices who worked alongside them.
On-the-job training programs range from formal training with company supervisors to learning by watching. In this sense, the most formal types of on-the-job training are distinct from classroom training largely in that they take place within the firm

Sun Tzu ' Pingfa' The Art of War '

2,500 years ago a Chinese warrior and philosopher named Sun Tzu became a grand master of strategy in the war world until today. We know many military strategists around the world have used Sun Tzu’s philosophies to win wars and have made Sun Tzu on the Art of War a way for their military education. In this globalization world I thing not only in the war strategy peoples know about Sun Tzu, Those seeking to understand strategy in business, law, and life have also turned to Sun Tzu on the Art of War for the wisdom therein. For at the heart of Sun Tzu’s philosophies are strategies for effective and efficient conflict resolution useful to all who wish to gain advantages over their opposition.

Sun Tzu records his idea in writing on the bamboo strips of his time. Later, a powerful and universal principle comes to the world called the principle of winning whole, meaning winning with your resources and your objective intact. It represents the first of six universal principles described by Sun Tzu that, when used together as one, present the most powerful strategic method yet recorded in any profession for winning conflicts. In this short review journal I will try to give the summaries about the grates way of Sun Tzu to win the war with a good manner that was written with a big scopes in the journal.

Some Notes on The Sun Tzu
In this journal, we have an invitation to take a look the heart of Sun Tzu’s strategic method and how to apply it. This journal we will found about a martial art of the mind, a way to outthink and outfight those who oppose the needs and desires. Ideally, we will also gain an appreciation of the many ways opponents may direct force against us so we can position our self accordingly to preclude harm. 2,500 years ago, Sun Tzu’s recorded words on military strategy proved so insightful that the Chinese nobility preserved them intact, and they, and many others who have read them to this day, would put those ideas to work. The use of Sun Tzu’s philosophies in the West has a shorter and sketchier history. Some military historians suggest that Napoleon applied Sun Tzu’s philosophies in his military planning and even carried a copy of Sun Tzu’s books with him on his campaigns. He certainly could have had in his possession a French translation available in his time, and his methods of maneuver show a marked similarity to those described by Sun Tzu.

In Sun Tzu principle we can founds first step Winning Whole, its means win with your resources and your objective intact. Any other result means you have at least partly failed at your mission. When you fight, you fight for something of value, and should you destroy yourself or that something of value while fighting to obtain it, then you have lost your real purpose for fighting. Winning whole also ascribes to the Way of life because you succeed at resolving conflicts productively and without destroying yourself and the objective. Fighting in accord with the Way of life, when you cannot avoid fighting, allows you to win whole with your army and your objective intact because you take measures. To winning the whole war we must combine with attack by stratagem, its means In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. So, too, it is better to capture an army entire than to destroy it, to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them. I thing from the journal we can founds to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.

Thus the highest form of generalship is to baulk the enemy’s plans and the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy’s forces, in order is to attack the enemy’s army in the field and the worst policy of all is to besiege cities. With forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, and thus without losing a man and the triumph will be complete. This is what Sun Tzu says about the method of attacking by stratagem. There are three ways in which a ruler can bring misfortune upon the army: first By commanding the army to advance or to retreat, being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. This is called hobbling the army. Second by attempting to govern an army in the same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant of the conditions which obtain in an army. This causes restlessness in the soldier’s minds, and the last By employing the officers of his army without discrimination, through ignorance of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances. This shakes the confidence of the soldiers. This journal give as some big point, that we must know that there are five essentials for victory, first we will win when we knows when to fight and when not to fight, second  we will win when we knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. Third we will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. Fourth we will win when we prepared our self, waits to take the enemy unprepared and the last military capacity and are not interfered with the sovereign. Victory will be there if you knowledge of these five points. Sun Tzu says “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle”.

The second Sun Tzu tell as about Waging War, Sun Tzu said “In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand, the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.
When we engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men’s weapons will grow dull and their patriotic will be damped. If we lay siege to a town, we will exhaust we strength. Now, when we weapons are dulled, our patriotic damped, our strength exhausted and our treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of our extremity.

Then no man, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue. We must know there is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on. In this waging of war in order to kill the enemy sun Tzu says, our men must be roused to anger that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards. Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. This is called, using the conquered enemy to augment one’s own strength. In war, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.

Third point for a grates victory we must know Tactical Dispositions, Sun Tzu said “The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy”. To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself. Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy and Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength attacking was a superabundance of strength.

The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete. We can found in the way Sun Tzu tell as about respect of military method, we have, firstly, Measurement; secondly, Estimation of quantity; thirdly, Calculation; fourthly, Balancing of chances, fifthly, Victory. In war the victorious strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won, whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory.

The fourth we must put into Terrain, because If we know the enemy and know our self,
Our victory will not stand in doubt; if we know Heaven and know Earth, we may be make our victory complete. Likes Sun Tzu said “the art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1) Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground; (4) open ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways; (6) serious ground; (7) difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground; (9) desperate ground”. Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew how to drive a wedge between the enemy’s front and rear; to prevent cooperation between his large and small divisions; to hinder the good troops from rescuing the bad, the officers from rallying their men. In these points Sun Tzu said to throw the soldiers into positions whence there is no escape, and they will prefer death to flight. If they will face death, there is nothing they may not achieve. Officers and men alike will put forth their uttermost strength and without waiting to be marshaled, the soldiers will be constantly on the alert, without waiting to be asked, they will do your will; without restrictions, they will be faithful; without giving orders, they can be trusted. If our soldiers are not overburdened with money, it is not because they have distaste for riches, if their lives are not very long; it is not because they are disinclined to longevity.

Fifth Attack by Fire we can said for accept the victory, there are five ways of attacking with fire. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp; the second is to burn stores; the third is to burn baggage trains; the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines; the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy. In order to carry out an attack with fire, we must have means available. The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness. In attacking with fire, one should be prepared to meet tree possible developments:  first when fire breaks out inside the enemy’s camp, respond at once with an attack from without, second If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy’s soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack and the last If it is possible to make an assault with fire from without, do not wait for it to break out within, but deliver your attack at a favorable moment.

The last universal strategy principle we must have to win the war we must conduct the used of space. Because Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of inhumanity. One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to sovereign, and no master of victory we can found. There are five classes of spies. When these five kinds of spy are all at work, none can discover the secret system. This is called “divine manipulation of the threads”. It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty. First local spies mean employing the services of the inhabitants of a district. Second inward spies, making use of officials of the enemy, thirds converted spies, getting hold of the enemy’s spies and using them for our own purposes and the fourth Having doomed spies, doing certain things openly for purposes of deception, and allowing our own spies to know of them and report them to the enemy the last Surviving spies, finally, are those who bring back news from the enemy’s camp. only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of spying, and thereby they achieve great results. Spies are a most important element in war, because on them depends an army’s ability to move.

Sun Tzu Principles of Modern Warfare Today
In modern warfare we can say Sun Tzu The first principle, Win All Without Fighting: Achieving the Objective without Destroying It. Many city states, countries, and empires have been built by leaders who leveraged their nation's unique history, geography, and assets to control that state's environment and sphere of influence. Thus, these leaders were able to ensure their states' ability to survive, become stable, expand, dominate their neighbors, and ultimately prosper for hundreds of years. The Roman Empire grew from a small area surrounding Rome to extend from Britain to the Black Sea to Egypt to what would in the future be known as Gibraltar. It lasted over five hundred years. The Mongol Empire began with a single nomadic tribe in central Asia but grew to rule lands from China to India to Europe. And, of course, the sun never set on the British Empire for several centuries. The goal of all these empires has been, like a living organism, to first survive, then to prosper. Today that goal remains for all countries, first to survive as an entity, and then to become prosperous.Your aim must be to take All under Heaven intact. Thus your troops are not worn out and your gains will be complete. This is the art of offensive strategy” ( Cimbala, Stephen J (1998), Coercive Military Strategy, Publisher: Texas A & M University Press). If the goal of a country is to survive and prosper, then we can see words above what is the goal of its best strategy.
The second principle is an important we can say, avoids strength, attack weakness. Although many generals prefer to attack each other head-on, this approach is very costly. As discussed earlier, wars of attrition can last for months and even years, leaving both sides in a weakened state. Instead, using the method of avoiding strength and attacking weakness maximizes one's gains while minimizing the use of the nation's resources. This, by definition, increases prosperity. Sun Tzu Say: “know the enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never be in peril.” I thing he tell us To find and exploit an enemy's weakness requires a deep understanding of their leaders' strategy, capabilities, thoughts, and desires and a similar depth of knowledge of one's own strengths and weaknesses. It is critical to study the minds of the opposing generals and understand how they will react to one's moves. It is also important to understand the environment and terrain which will be contested.
The third strategy we can found in Sun Tzu is about Deception and Foreknowledge its means “Winning the Information War”. Speed is the essence of war. Take advantage of the enemy's unpreparedness; travel by unexpected routes and strike him where has taken no precautions. To move with such speed does not mean to do things hastily. In reality, speed requires much preparation. Reducing the time it takes to make decisions, develop new weapons, implement strategies and respond to the enemy's moves is crucial. To think through and understand the opponent's reaction to one's possible moves also is essential. In the military context Information warfare embraces and overlaps with ‘command and control warfare’ at the tactical , operational, and strategic levels. However, the term is also used to refer to grand-strategic attack on, and defense of, the information infrastructure of a modern state, including stock markets, banking, telecommunications, air traffic control, and electric power.
Modern states, increasingly dependent on computers, are ever more vulnerable to such attacks, and an Information warfare attack could have the same paralyzing effect as a nuclear strike. Furthermore, it may be very difficult to find out who launched it. Information warfare might be waged by a nation state, a faction within a state, a terrorist or criminal group. Its unique nature is illustrated by the fact that in the UK defense against Information warfare is now the responsibility of the Cabinet Office, not the Ministry of Defense. Nowadays the term Information warfare is often used to refer to ‘cyber war’, from the Greek for a governor or controller. A neat definition, though probably too simple, is that Information war fare is war in a new element, cyberspace, in which electronic messages and ‘viruses’ are introduced into the enemy's computers, either to disable them or to plant false information, either through existing communication lines or, in future, by lasers or other electromagnetic transmissions. ‘Trojan horses’ may be introduced which nestle undetected in an enemy computer system until activated by the user. ‘Logic bombs’ may sabotage the software.
Thus Information war fare may take three forms about Deception and Foreknowledge we can say in physical attack such as bombing against an information system; a computer based attack on a physical objective, for example, disabling an aircraft's controls; or an information attack from one information system against another proper cyber war


To read Sun Tzu’s words, however, is not to immediately understand them. That would be equivalent to picking up a sword for the first time and expecting to fight well with it. But, from this journal I have to say the art of war (the six principle of war) is really a vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road to safety or to ruin like Sun Tzu says. Therefore, it is a subject that must be thoroughly studied.

(By: OK.M.Fajar Ikhsan, BA,MSc)

Friday, January 14, 2011

Bukan Hanya Sekedar Teman Melainkan


Thursday, January 13, 2011

Sistem Demokrasi Otoriter ‘Tanpa Soeharto

Tidak ada sistem politik dan pemerintahan manapun yang sempurna, tidak ada teori-teori dalam bidang sosial apapun yang sempurna di dunia untuk memaksakan sebuah sistem yang dapat digunakan sebagai asas tonggak sebuah negara, termasuk sistem monarki,sistem demokrasi ,komunis dan lainnya.  Karena kestabilan dan kedinamisan sebuah sistem tersebut hanya dapat digunakan oleh masing-masing negara yang membutuhkannya dan masing-masing negara tersebut memiliki alasan tersendiri seperti,alasan sosial,budaya,ekonomi dan latar belakang sejarah, dan pemerintahan dalam sebuah negara  mengetahui sistem apa yang diperlukan negaranya dan rakyatnya.

Banyak dari kita yang sudah biasa mendengar kata otoriter yang berasal dari bahasa inggris “Authoritarian”,kata demokrasi yang masing-masing memiliki cerita pahit didalam sistem tersebut. Tidak harus berputar dan bergeming dalam membicarakan sejarah pemimpin otoriter, tidak harus membuka wikipedia untuk tahu makna demokrasi. Dunia telah mengalami perubahan yang cukup signifikan dan mengalami transisi dari sistem politik sebuah negara  yang di pimpin oleh sistem monarki absolut (kerajaan)yang secara otomatis menjadikan sifat seorang pemimpin menjadi pemimpin otoriter, dimana pemusataan kekuasaan hanya terletak pada negara dan pemimpinnya sehingga tidak melihat derajat kebebasan dan hak individu, dan jurang pemisah antara pemimpin dan dipimpin sangat jauh. Penguasaan dalam sistem ini umumnya tidak diperolehi tanpa melalui sistem demokrasi atau pemilihan umum. Tetapi tidak hanya Inggris yang menggunakan sistem ini, beberapa kawasan yang masih belum bersatu menjadi sebuah negara juga menggunakan sistem ini,yang dipimpin oleh seorang raja yang didaulat dan dipercaya mendapat mandat dari Tuhan untuk memimpin rakyatnya. Ini memberi penjelasan kepada kita bahwa sistem Authoritarian bukan sebuah sistem yang diperkenalkan oleh Barat. Tulisan ini tidak akan memberikan dengan sangat detail mengenai perkembangan sistem Authoritarian dan sistem demokrasi di negara Barat, tetapi bagaimana mencoba menggabungkan sistem authoritarian dan sistem demokrasi  karena kita tahu bahwa sistem ini sangat bertolak belakang dan sangat membenci satu dengan yang lain dan untuk  menjadikan sebuah formula baru yang mungkin dapat diaplikasikan di negara-negara berkembang (developing country ) khususnya Indonesia, dan negara-negara miskin atau kurang berkembang (undeveloped country).

Otoriter dan Demokrasi
Indonesia pernah memiliki pemimpin yang otoriter (Soeharto) dan memimpin Indonesia lebih dari 30 tahun lamanya, dan mungkin sebagian kita di Indonesia masih trauma mendengar kata otoriter. Sejumlah orang bergabung kedalam  organisasi Anti-Otoriter selepas keluar dari rezim ini karena sangat membenci gaya kepeimpinan dari sistem ini. Masih banyak saudara-saudara kita yang kehilangan keluarga tanpa diketahui alasannya. Kita juga sempat merasakan pembatasan hak-hak berbicara,mengkritik,berorasi,demontrasi ,berpolitik setiap warga negara, pembunuhan masal bagi setiap warga yang menentang ke otoriterannya,pembatasan media, wartawan dan kebebasan mendirikan sebuah organisasi dan lainnya. Mendasarnya, sistem ini sangat tidak relevan dengan hak dasar kemanusiaan (natural human rights). Karena mekasnisme kebijakan dan pembuatan keputusan hanya diputuskan oleh seorang pemimpin (walaupun kita memiliki lemabaga perwakilan rakyat tetapi itu tidak pernah bekerja efektif pada zamannya),keuntungan pajak,proyek pembangunan langsung masuk ke kas kroni-kroni dan keluarganya. Semakin lama rakyat semakin berkembang, gerakan generasi mudan dan pemikirancrakyat  semakin meluas dan semakin memiliki keberanian untuk menentang sang ‘tangan besi’ untuk mendapatkan sebuah hak kemanusiaan, terjadi demontrasi besar-besaran diberbagai wilayah di Indonesia untuk menjatuhkan rezim soeharto. Pada tahun 1998 kepemimpinan sang tangan besi dan kroninya ‘tumbang!’.  Tetapi apakah dengan tumbangnya rezim tangan besi maka permasalahan Indonesia berakhir???? Tentu saja jawabannya tidak! justru ini menjadi rintangan terbesar negara ini.
Anarki Demokrasi (Transisi)
Mei 1998 BJ Habibie menjadi Presiden menggantikan Soeharto,merubah beberapa kebijakan dalam sektor ekonomi, dan sosial termasuk pembebasan kembali hak-hak sebagai individu yang dulu hilang, hak berbicara, berpendapat, mengkritik pemerintahan untuk transparansi, hak media untuk menyebar dan mendapatkan berita dll. Singkat saja, sekarang semua orang merasa memiliki hak yang sama (equality rights)untuk beraspirasi dan menentang atau menjadi oposisi dari bagian pemerintahan dimana demokrasi mengajarkan hal seperti ini, tetapi adakah standarisasi hak kemanusian?? Tidak. Tidak ada standarisasi untuk hak kemanusiaan, sejauh mana seseorang boleh melakukan hal yang dia inginkan, dan sejauh mana seseorang tidak boleh melakukan hal yang diinginkan. Hak universalisasi yang dimiliki dan disetujui oleh sejumlah negara-negara yang meratifikasikan ini berada di bawah PBB ,yang lebih dikenal sebagai Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) sejenis perjanjian tentang hak-hak setiap individu dan larangan-larangan yang bersifat umum seperti, pembunuhan, pemerkosaan, deportasi paksa,pemusnahan,perbudakan,penyiksaan,dan lainnya. Tetapi untuk hal yang lebih bersifat khusus seperti hak untuk berunjuk rasa secara anarki adalah diatur dalam undang-undang sesebuah negara sendiri. Karena dampak dari rezim tangan besi rakyat indonesia gemar ‘latah’ melakukan unjuk rasa, apabila kebijakan pemerintah tidak sesuai dengan yang diinginkan maka rakyat meluapkan emosi dengan berunjuk rasa menyuarakan aspirasinya tetapi prioritas pendemo lebih memikirkan sifat emosi dari pada rasio.
Demokrasi yang dibawa oleh sifat emosi menjadikan demokrasi yang anarki yang artinya merusakkan sistem dalam negara sendiri berbentuk fisikal dan non-fisikal. Masyarakat tidak bisa dikontrol dan dikenakan sanksi untuk perbuatan unjuk rasa yang anarki. Logikanya,apabila pihak berwajib menahan atau menembak orang yang berdemo,maka ini akan mengembalikan mimpi buruk yang pernah ada pada zaman tangan besi. Dalam praktek demokrasi masyarakat memiliki hak yang mungkin dianggap lebih tinggi dari pemerintah sebagai instrumen untuk membiarkan transparansi pemerintahan , sehingga kedudukan ini menyebabkan dilema kepada pemerintah sendiri apabila mereka tidak bekerja dengan baik. Seharusnya ini akan menjadi lebih baik untuk perkembangan negara, tetapi malah sebaliknya, di era inilah orang-orang yang sedang berada di pemerintahan menggunakan kekuasaannya untuk mendapatkan dan memenuhi kepentingan pribadinya yang dulu terkekang. Korupsi adalah penyakitnya!, korupsi pada era soeharto dilakukan oleh kroni-kroni dan nepotisme berbagai macam proyek yang keuntungannya langsung masuk kedalam dompet sang anak ataupun dompet keluarga mereka. Tetapi di era reformasi sekarang, penyakit ini semakin meluas dan tersebar tidak hanya dalam lingkungan kroni-kroni pemimpin saja,tetapi mencakup segala aspek pemerintahan. Kepercayaan masyarakat semakin berkurang kepada pemerintah, kembali lagi terjadi aksi-aksi demontrasi yang bersifat anarki, perusakan kantor-kantor, sampai kejadian yang terbaru adalah tewasnya Ketua DPRD Sumatera Utara atas yang disebabkan oleh sebuah kejadian demontrasi tersebut walaupun perkaranya bukan menyangkut tentang korupsi. Kesimpulannya hak kebebasan yang berlebihan atau hak kemanusiaan yang diberikan kepada rakyat, akan sangat fatal akibatnya apabila pemerintah tidak bisa memberikan jaminan kesejahteraan baik dalam bidang ekonomi, sosial dan keamanan kepada rakyat.

‘Old story in the new book’
(Auhtorian Demokrasi)
Terkadang kita merindukan sosok sang tangan besi dengan ke otoriterannya memimpin bangsa ini. Terkadang banyak orang membandingkan dan mendebatkan, apakah pantas negara dengan rakyat yang belum memiliki kestabilan emosi,kestabilan komunitas dan sifat anarki yang sedang merajai ini dibubuhi nilai-nilai demokrasi barat? Belum. Kita masih harus perlu pemimpin yang otoriter yang dapat mengarahkan kita agar menjadi sipil yang stabil, berfikir tentang komunitas sosial dan kepentingan bersama mengikut teori ‘communitarism’. Tetapi bagaimana cara memiliki pemimpin yang otoriter dalam sistem demokrasi? Sama saja mengulang mimpi buruk yang pernah terjadi. Setiap sistem memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing, sebuah sistem dapat berfungsi dengan baik sesuai dengan tempat (wilayah) dan kebutuhannya dan seiring kedinamisan sebuah pemerintahan didalamnya. Authoritarian sebenarnya adalah sistem yang baik, yang dapat mengarahkan masyarakat menjadi masyarakat sosialis dan tunduk kepada pemerintah. Tetapi alangkah baiknya apabila sistem ini kita bubuhi sifat-sifat demokrasi seperti hak kebebasan yang diatur dalam undang-undang yang kokoh. Memang akan susah menyatukan 2 sistem yang berbeda dan bertolak belakang ini menjadi satu formula. Sebenarnya yang dilakukan soeharto sudah benar, dengan sistem pemimpin yang otoriter tetapi sistem pemerintahan demokrasi, tetapi kesalahan soeharto adalah ketika ia mengetepikan hak-hak setiap individu seperti beraksi dan bersosialisasi, penggunaan uang untuk kepentingan keluarga dan kroni dan meninggalkan hutang sekitar Rp.1800 triliun yang akan harus dibayar sampai generasi berikut-berikutnya. Inilah yang menyebabkan adanya tekanan yang tidak dapat terbendung oleh masyarakat yang menghasilkan sebuah reformasi yang membawa ke arah anarki yang perlahan dapat menghancurkan bangsa sendiri. Apalbila sistem otoriter dan demokrasi disatukan maka aspek otoriter demokrasi  harus memiliki pondasi untuk lebih mengutamakan kepentingan rakyat seperti kesejahteraan dan lainnya, bersifat tegas terhadap tindakan anarki tetapi tidak dengan hukuman mati (atau yang seperti dilakukan soeharto), Jaminan hak asasi manusia, kontrol terhadap media dan memberikan batasan yang sesuai (tidak seperti yang dilakukan soeharto terhadap hak kebebasan media dan wartawan), aspek umum yang mendasar lainnya adalah  pluralisme sosial, ekonomi, dan politik ,nilai-nilai tolerensi, pragmatisme, Pemilihan yang bebas dan jujur. Karena bagaimanapun bagaiman membuat agar rakyat kembali menghargai pemimpinnya dan tidak merendahkan pemimpinnya seperti yang dilakukan para demonstran di era sekarang ini.

(By: OK M. Fajar Ikhsan, BA, M.Sc)

Component Analysis Change

Cultural Web

Culture often becomes the focus of attention during periods of organizational change - when companies merge and their cultures clash, for example, or when growth and other strategic change mean that the existing culture becomes inappropriate, and hinders rather than supports progress.

Corporate culture can have a huge impact on an organization's work environment and output. This is why so much research has been done to pinpoint exactly what makes an effective corporate culture,

The Cultural Web, developed by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes in 1992, provides one such approach for looking at and changing your organization's culture. Using it, you can expose cultural assumptions and practices, and set to work aligning organizational elements with one another, and with your strategy.

Cultural web can influence cultural paradigm. A paradigm is a self-consistent set of ideas and beliefs which acts as a filter, influencing how we perceive and how we make sense.

Firstly, it is the paradigm which has the major effect on our perception.
Secondly, the prevailing paradigm encourages certain types of behaviour.
Thirdly, the paradigm tends to be self-sustaining.

This 'taken for grantedness' tends to act as a 'filter' through which people in an organization make sense of their world internally and externally. This can be very helpful for at least two reasons. First, it provides a 'shorthand' way of understanding often complex situations; second, it may be the basis of the organization’s success, providing competitive advantage because the culture itself is difficult to imitate. However, it can also be problematic because new ideas may be 'filtered out' and because the culture is likely to be very difficult to change, particularly if the success of the organization has been based upon it in the past.

The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements; these elements are represented graphically as six semi-overlapping circles. By analyzing the factors in each; you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working, what isn't working, and what needs to be changed. The six elements are:

a) Stories - The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says a great deal about what it values, and perceives as great behavior.
Told by Organization members that, as a form of oral history, communicate, and reinforce core elements of the culture

b) Rituals and Routines - The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management

c) Symbols - The visual representations of the company including logos, how plush the offices are, and the formal or informal dress codes.
That convey aspects of the culture.

d) Organizational Structure - This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, refers to the nature formal and informal differentiation and integration of task within organization.

e) Control Systems - The ways that the organization is controlled. These include financial systems, quality systems, and rewards (including the way they are measured and distributed within the organization.)

f) Power Structures – which refer to the most influential mgmt groupings in organization. The pockets of real power in the company. This may involve one or two key senior executives, a whole group of executives, or even a department. The key is that these people have the greatest amount of influence on decisions, operations, and strategic direction.

The Value of Culture Mapping
There are three main benefits to mapping organizational culture:
• Surfacing that which is taken for granted can be a useful way of questioning what is normally rarely questioned. If no one ever questions what is taken for granted then, inevitably, change will be difficult.

• By mapping aspects of organizational culture it may be possible to see where barriers to change exist and also what aspects of the existing culture are in line with the desired future strategy.

• A map of organizational culture can also provide a basis for examining what changes need to occur to deliver a new strategy and how such changes can be managed, so practical ideas for implementing strategic change can be developed.

Structural Dilemmas

Organizational structure - is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to achieve an organization's goals

The way a structure or culture is designed or evolves over time affects the way people and groups behave within the organization. Once an organization decides how it wants its members to behave, what attitudes it wants to encourage, and what it wants its members to accomplish, it can then design its structure and encourage the development of the cultural values and norm to obtain these desired attitudes, behaviors, and goals.

Bolman and Deal identify six such dilemmas in organization structure:
a. Differentiation versus Integration. As `organizations grow or as tasks become more complex, there is value ins specialization, but with each act differentiation comes the need at some point to integrate the various parts into the coherent whole that is the product or service experienced by the customer.

b. Gap versus Overlap. If all necessary tasks are not assigned to some position or department, key tasks may go undone to detriment of the whole organization. However, if a task assigned to more than one position or department, whether specifically or by default through ambiguity in instructions, the situation can easily become one where there is wasted effort and/or conflict.

c. Underuse versus Overload. If staff have too little work, they are likely to be bored and/or get in the way in their efforts to find something to do. If staff ore overloaded with work, their capacity to service fellow staff or customers/clients is impaired.

d. Lack of clarity versus Lack of creativity. If the responsibilities of a position are left too vague, it is easy for the employee to undertake work that the employer did not intend or wish to be done However, if job descriptions are very specific and either rigidly followed, a major source of organizational flexibility is lost and service is likely to suffer.

e. Excessive autonomy versus Excessive interdependence. A high degree of autonomy can lead to a sense of isolation, but a high level of independence can stifle quick reaction to market opportunities.

f. Too loose versus Too tight. Lack of accountability can lead to control failures, but so can attempts at very close monitoring as it may be demotivating and/or encourage people to find ways to beat the system.

Boundaryless Organization

In a boundaryless organization concept relation to improving the competitive advantage of individual workers. Companies no longer apply a rigid job descriptions and specific job-oriented to a specific employee but the company must give priority to the KSA (Knowledge-Skill-Attitude) of each activity is achieved through job analysis. Then integrate each company's work and shape it into groups related to the KSA that has been previously mapped. This integration will give freedom to employees to engage in a variety of different activities rather than just doing tasks assigned are limited by an inflexible job description.

To be able to run this concept with the optimal, the company also must have the courage to make structural changes. The main obstacles that must be faced is the vertical barriers. Traditional corporate organizations typically have a vertical organizational structures that tend to hierarchical, high ability is usually perceived by the high position, not by the mastery of knowledge and expertise. Therefore boundaryless organization is required to be free from bureaucratic nature and liberating ideas, communication, and decision making flow smoothly (Falk, 2001).

In this concept, the employee will feel appreciated even if not in high positions, because they are valued not because of his position but based on competencies (KSA). To overcome the horizontal, the management company cannot see the extent the organization of functional boxes, but as a place to share resources and competencies (Ashkesnas et al, 1995).

Implementation of the breakthrough concept of boundaryless organization "extreme and has proved successful enough to overcome the vertical constraints can be viewed on a high-tech company;

a. WL Gore & Associates Inc.. in Maryland, United States. The concept is called the "lattice organization" which in this company there is no structure "pyramid" as companies in general, there is no superior-subordinate, no command, and no job. Jobs are not run by employer "set" a subordinate, but the employees to govern themselves based on personal and community commitment (, 2010) ..

b. Another very successful implementation can also be seen in the company's search engine, where applicable 70/20/10 system where employees only need to use 70% of the time it works to actually doing his job, while 20% of the time it works can be used to grind / projects that groove but is still associated with the company, 10% remaining time can be used to do whatever employees want (, 2010).

c. More broadly on-line bookstore applying the concept of E-commerce as a way to overcome both external and geographical barriers by interacting directly Bussines to bussines-(B2B) with other companies and Bussiness-to-customer (B2C) on- line using the Internet network. Thereby reducing operating costs and can improve product quality

Newflash Exercise

newsflash - a short news announcement concerning some on-going news story

Tackling the diagnostic issue by getting the management of an organization to focus in very specific terms on exactly what they are seeking to achieve.

Some diagnostic models can be too abstract; something that makes the issues very concrete achieves a clearer outcome.

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites More

Powered by Blogger